DRAFTING THINGS HERE – MOVE ALONG NOW

TOPIC: Timeline of alphabets and differences. Evidence rqd.


Elder Futhark (2nd – 8th Centuries)

24 runes. 3 x 8. Used to write Proto-Norse.

f u th a r k g w
h n i j ï p z s
t b e m l ng d o (oo)

Anglo-Saxon (5th – 11th centuries)

Extended: 29-33 runes.
Futhorc
Thames scramasax
Vienna Codex
Ruthwell Cross
Cotton Otho
Anglo-Saxon_futhorc
Anglo-Saxon Futhorc

“Marcomannic runes” (8th-9th centuries)

Mix of Elder Futhark with Anglo-Saxon.
It is an attempt to represent all letters
of the Latin alphabet with runic equivilents.
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Younger Futhark (9th-11th centuries)
(also Scandinavian Futhark).

Reduced for of Elder. 16 characters. Corresponds with
the phonetic changes when Proto-Norse become Old Norse.
Split into 2 – Long-branch (Danish) and short-twig
(Norwegian/Swedish) runes. This is due to
functionality (long for stone, short for wood).
some_text

Medieval Runes (12th-15th Centuries)

Now it has one phoneme per Old Norse one.
Now there are signs for voiceless marks
(kinda like having a silent ‘e’ like in ‘give’).
Was side by side with Latin characters.
New runes for vowel sounds.
S, c and Z used interchangably with other characters.
some_text

Dalecarlian Runes (16th-19th Centuries)
Mix of latin and runic characters from an isolated area in Sweden.
Mainly used in conjunction with Elfdalian (North Germanic language.)
some_text

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